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Fallopian Tube Abnormalities: Tuboplasty

Of the many reasons for infertility in women, a blocked fallopian tube is one of the most common. A tubal block prevents the successful passage of the sperm to the egg, which means that it cannot get fertilized. A block also prevents the temporary storage of the oocyte and the movement of the embryo to the uterine cavity. Tubal blocks develop due to tuberculosis, endometriosis, Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID), adhesions, infections after child birth, Dilatation & Curettage, and scarring.

The fallopian tubes are two thin tubes, one on each side of the uterus, which help lead the mature egg from the ovaries to the uterus. When an obstruction prevents the egg from traveling down the tube, a woman has a blocked fallopian tube, also known as tubal factor infertility. This can occur on one or both sides and is the cause of infertility in 40 percent of infertile women.

How Do Blocked Fallopian Tubes Cause Infertility?

Each month, when ovulation occurs, an egg is released from one of the ovaries. The egg travels from the ovary, through the tubes, and into the uterus. The sperm also need to swim their way from the cervix, through the uterus, and through the fallopian tubes to get the egg. Fertilization usually takes place while the egg is traveling through the tube.

If one or both fallopian tubes are blocked, the egg cannot reach the uterus, and the sperm cannot reach the egg, preventing fertilization and pregnancy. It's also possible for the tube not to be blocked totally, but only partially. This can increase the risk of a tubal pregnancy, or ectopic pregnancy.

How is a Blocked Fallopian Tube Diagnosed?

Blocked tubes are usually diagnosed with a specialized x-ray, called a hysterosalpingogram, or HSG. This test involves placing a dye through the cervix, using a tiny tube. Once the dye has been given, the doctor will take x-rays of your pelvic area.